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grupy hydroksylowe, estry, ketony b¹dź aldehydy. Po- niewa¿ peptydy zawieraj¹ .. spe³niaj¹cych zadanie zbli¿one do synonimów, uroz- maica tekst i stanowi. W Polsce podobnego zadania podjql sip Polski Komitet Normalizacji. – l aldehydes -aldehydy aliphatic amines -aminy alifatyczne . izopropyloamina ketones -ketony lead y enie gazu . Cenione s ketony cykliczne 0 atomach wftgla, ktore maj zapach piZmowy, S to: salicylan benzylu, alkohol cynamo- nowy, aldehyd cynamonowy, cytral, calkowicie zmetabolizowany w organizmie po spelnieniu swojego zadania.

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I’ve shown the sigma bonds here rotated a little bit differently.

And still our Y group like that. So zadabia water at this stage. Transkrypcja filmu video Voiceover: We’ve talked about in previous videos how protonation of the carbonyl oxygen makes the carbonyl carbon more electrophilic.

So we deprotonate, and kftony we have our oxygen bonded to our R double prime group, and then we still have this oxygen over here on the right, with a negative aldehyxy formal charge. So lone pair of electrons on this oxygen ketoony attack this carbonyl, push these electrons off onto this oxygen, and once you protonate, deprotonate and protonate, you’re going to form a cyclic hemiacetal, so over here on the left let’s say this is the cyclic hemiacetal that you form, so let’s analyze those carbons there.

We know that the nucleophile is going to be our amine and it’s going to attack our carbonyl carbon here. We have our carbon double bonded to our nitrogen this time, our nitrogen is still bonded to our Y group.


Chemia Zbior zadan wraz z odpowiedziami Tom 3: : Dariusz Witowski: Books

That gives the nitrogen a plus one formal charge and the carbon is still bonded to our alkyl groups And so zadanla show those electrons here on our nitrogen. So a lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen could take this proton right here and leave these electrons behind on our nitrogen to give us our imine products.

And if the OH is alvehydy or down, those are different anomers. So you oxidize a secondary alcohol you’re going to form a ketone here.

So we have these two as our possible products.

Formation of hemiacetals and hemiketals

And so we can’t deprotonate in the same place, we have to pick a carbon adjacent over here. So let’s follow some electrons. Acid and base catalyzed formation of hydrates and hemiacetals.

So let’s go ahead and show ketoy result of that nucloephilic attack. We have kefony carbonyl situation over here on the left, for our aldehyde or ketone, with the oxygen being more electronegative and withdrawing some electron density away from our carbonyl carbon. So we’re almost to our final product, we would just have to deprotonate our iminium ion. So let me go ahead and write on here Chemist Tree if it’s the holiday season.

Alright, so if that’s formation of an imine, let’s look at an example.

So the OH equatorial for this one. And because of all these OH aldeehydy on the glucose molecule. So let’s show the movement of those electrons so I’ll use green here. And our hydrogen over here. And then once again, if our Y is a hydrogen an alkyl group we have formed an imine. It picked up another one, so that’s where our negative one formal charge is.


Powstawanie imin i enamin (film) | Khan Academy

So let’s go ahead and show the result of that. So let me go ahead and write that. And so now that would give us this intermediate the same one that we had before. So the other possibility, of course, would be to add that OH up relative to the plain of the ring.

So a lone pair of electrons and the nitrogen over here are going to attack our carbonyl carbon and that’s going to kick these electrons in here off onto the oxygen, so let’s draw the results of that. So that’s going to give us our final product where we have carbon double bonded to our nitrogen and then we have nitrogen bonded to our Y group here. Now this is extremely important when you get into carbohydrate chemistry, so these acetals differ at carbon one.